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Atocha Workshop

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On March 11th, 2005 the Varsavsky Foundation will host the Atocha Workshop on global terrorism, an interactive brainstorm and policy forum that takes place at the Atocha train station on the first anniversary of the Atocha massacre. This workshop will include selected participants from the International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security, as well as other creative individuals. This is an independent event organized by the Varsavsky Foundation.

At the International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security participants will engage in drafting the Madrid Agenda, the culmination of months of collaboration between key policymakers, leading scholars, and international experts. The Atocha Workshop will have a different objective. While The Madrid Agenda is about building a bridge among democracies for coordinated action vis a vis global terrorism, the Atocha workshop is less about consensus as much as it is more of a forum to promote diverse thinking in the fight against terrorism. The objective is to create a repository of original thinking on global terrorism that will start on March 11th and will continue to be fed daily in the form of a blog by creative thinkers from around the world. The innovative format of the Atocha Workshop will be especially stimulating with small, focused, group debates on challenging topics. This will be combined with the use of a large group Policy Forum open to the public. The results of the Atocha Workshop will be published in blog format on the Atocha Workshop web site (www.AtochaWorkshop.org) for all interested people around the world to see and comment on.

The Atocha Workshop will develop an innovative work environment, but most importantly will honor the victims of terrorism. As we reflect on the tragedy of this day, we must draw inspiration from the site of the attack and work constructively towards a safer future. The greatest honor that can be bestowed upon the victims of terrorism is the creation of a world where M11 and acts of terror will never happen again.

PRELIMINARY PROGRAM

The Atocha Workshop will take place at the Atocha Train Station on March 11th, 2005. It will begin at 12:30pm at the Samarkanda Restaurant, and continue until 8:00pm. Here, an atmosphere that encourages creative content production will be developed.

The workshop will consist of seven events. Six will be open to the public while the creative debate is for invited participants only. Altogether around 120 participants and 230 members of the public are expected to attend the Workshop.

12.30-13.45
Opening Plenary (Creative Debate Participants & Public): A diverse group of seven participants will engage in a discussion open to the public.

14.00-17.00
Creative Debate (Creative Debate Participants Only): In 10 groups of 12, including a moderator and a rapporteur, members will have a timed debate on a specific topic under discussion. The rapporteur will be equipped with a laptop and will contribute the groups original thinking live to a blog set up specifically for the workshop. Feedback received on the blog from participants around the world will be shared with the group. At the end of this debate, the group must develop a minimum of one creative proposal that they will present in the Policy Forum that takes places 45 minutes after the end of the Creative Debate.

14.00-15.00
Plenary Session I (Selected Creative Debate Participants and Public. The two plenary sessions and rapid fire panel will run parallel to the Creative Debate.)
Topic: TBA
This plenary session will consist of 5 speakers and 1 moderator.

15.00-16.00
Plenary Session II: (Selected Creative Debate Participants and Public)
Topic: TBA
This plenary session will consist of 5 speakers and 1 moderator.

16.00-17.00
Rapid Fire Panel: (Selected Creative Debate Participants and Public)
In this format, 6 panellists will have 5 minutes each, to make a presentation of their creative and innovative idea. After each presentation there will be a 5 minute Q & A session.

17.00-17.45
Break

17.45-19.15
Policy Forum (Creative Debate Participants and Public): The innovative ideas and proposals developed in the Creative Debates will be presented to the public in a unique format. Each creative debate group will be assigned to a designated area of the conference hall. As the public walks among these groups, the Creative Debate teams will stand with flip charts and try to gain support for their ideas in brief presentations to the public. Members of the public will then endorse the policies they believe to be constructive with their signature. This exercise will serve two purposes. It will give feedback to policy sponsors as to the general acceptance of their ideas, and will give the public a way to transform concern into action.

19.15-20:00
Remembrance of March 11th victims: (Creative Debate Participants and Public):
Directly following the Policy Forum there will be a remembrance of the victims of March 11, 2004. This will consist of a presentation by Dr. Yael Danieli, a leading psychologist, and former Senior Representative to the United Nations of the World Federation for Mental Health and of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. She will present her new book entitled The Trauma of Terrorism, focusing on an aspect of the War on Terror that all too often is overlooked.

In addition, Samarkanda Restaurant will be the host to a surrounding photo exhibit from Madrid in Memoriam (www.MadridinMemoriam.com). This organization has complied a presentation of amateur and professional photos that capture the impact of March 11, 2004.

PROPOSED TOPICS FOR CREATIVE DEBATE

1. Nationalism and Religion: Their Effects on Terrorism:
Nationalism alone as in the case of ETA seems to be enough to inspire terrorism. But the most lethal terrorist acts seem to be carried out by terrorists who blend both, nationalism and religion. The same appears to be true of the responses to terrorism as the 100,000 estimated dead in Iraq show. Nations that combine a heavy dosage of nationalism and religion, as the United States seem to have a tendency to be more ready to accept the use of force. What is it about this combination of nationalism and religion that makes actors feel more entitled to violence? Can anything be done to deflate it?

2. The Ethics of Bombing and Placing Bombs:
Why is bombing acceptable while placing bombs is not? Can democracies continue to justify bombing civilians from the air and ground as a valid terrorist fighting tactic? When does bombing unarmed civilian populations become a crime? How can democracies put together an ethical response to terrorism?

3. Why did Progressives Divide Over Iraqi Policy:
Why did people as different in political backgrounds as Dick Cheney and Tony Blair fight the Iraqi war together?

4. Russia and the War on Terror:
How can Western democracies validly criticize the responses of Putin to Islamic terrorism while at the same time invade Iraq? Taking into account that the biggest terrorist threat is nuclear terrorism, shouldn’t the United States either change its own policies or else go all the way and ally itself with Russia in the war against Islamic Terrorism?

5. Terrorism as an Enterprise:
Is terrorism a political movement or a political enterprise created by power entrepreneurs whose access to power is otherwise blocked? Establish a psychological profile of terrorist leaders: what really motivates people like Osama Bin Laden?

6. Muslim Society’s Latent and Explicit Support of Terrorism:
What percentage of sympathizers do terrorists need to succeed within a society? What is the support that Al Qaida has in Islamic countries?

7. Allocating Resources in the Fight against Global Terror:
Was the $200 bn spent by the US in the invasion of Iraq wisely spent? How much money is reasonable for the US to devote to fighting terrorism? Should some funds be spent in different initiatives? What could these initiatives be and how much could they cost?

8. America’s War on Terror and the Fall of the US dollar:
Are there any links between the invasion of Iraq and the fall of the dollar? Has the war on terror affected the ability of US multinationals to do business around the world and sell their products and services?

9. The Impact of the War on Terror on American Multinationals:

10. Nuclear Weapons in the Arab World:
Why does the United States accept that Pakistan be the only Islamic nuclear power while fighting so hard against Iran’s development of atomic weapons? How can this be explained to the Iranian people? Isn´t it reasonable that Iran surrounded by 4 atomic powers already, Russia, India, Pakistan and Israel would want to own atomic weapons? Should we try to stop Iran or disarm others?

11. Rallying Moderate Muslims in the Western World:
Are Muslim citizens of Europe and the United States potential terrorists or contrarily potenial allies in the fight against terrorism? Have the US policies in Iraq made these citizens more likely to sympathize and even collaborate with global terrorism? Now that Muslims make up 5% of the electorate in some western democracies, should policy towards the Muslim world in western democracies be made with Muslim voters in mind?

12. Possible US Responses to a Nuclear Terrorist Attack:
If the next Al Qaeda attack is an atomic car bomb exploding in Manhattan with over 100,000 people dead, how should the United States retaliate?

13. Terrorism Finance 101:
How much does it cost to start and maintain an Al Qaeda cell? How much money does it take to run Al Qaeda? How cost effective is suicide bombing as a form of warfare? It is estimated that it costs Hamas only around $150 per suicide bombing. Is this one of the reasons for its success as a terrorist practice?

14. Debating Terrorists:
Knowing what we know about terrorists, what are the 10 most effective ways to convince a terrorist to give up violence? Do they center around carrots or sticks?

15. Empowering Muslim Women:
If Muslim women are denied basic rights that are common to them in Democracies, is there a way to work through women’s groups to promote democracy and fight terrorism in Islamic countries?

16. Sex and The War on Terror:
Muslim terrorists criticize Western sexual values and yet endorse practices such as polygamy that Westerners find as unacceptable. Do these differences in sexual values come up in episodes of sexual violence such as Abu Ghraib? How do sexual views in general of Westerners and Muslims affect the conflict?

17. Crime and Punishment in the Muslim World:
Other than terrorism, do Muslim societies suffer a generally high, medium or low common crime rate? How does their definition and punishment for crime differ from those of Western Democracies?

18. Freedom Fighters or Terrorists? How to Shape the Debate:
Is violence by Iraqis against US Troops terrorism or a war of national liberation? Does terrorism refer to a method of fighting or to the targeting of civilians?

19. Madrasas, Islam, and the Education Gap in the Arab World:
Is education effective in preventing terrorism? Is Israeli education proof of this? Of the over one million Israeli citizens of Palestine descent, few have committed terrorists acts yet 25% of Palestinian Youths educated in the occupied territories between age 12 to 17 responded in surveys that they would like to become suicide bombers. Is this proof that Palestinians educated by Israelis behave very differently from Palestinians educated by Palestinians under occupation? Should the US and Europe invest resources in education in the Middle East? Would Middle East countries accept this intervention?

20. The PR War: Al Qaeda vs. U.S:
Who is winning the PR battle? The US or the Islamic Extremists? How does each side manipulate the Internet, mass media, and use key personalities for their cause? Who would be the most effective spokesman for the American war on terror? Is Bush the US’s most effective spokesman? Is Bin Laden the most effect spokesman on the other side? Is the right measure of PR effectiveness the “conversion rate”?

21. The Arms Race Version 2.0: Muslims vs. Christians Proselytizing:
In the post cold-war era, are we entering a different type of an arms race? What are cultures from around the world doing to finish at the top in the race for disciples? From Evangelical Christians to Islam Fundamentalists, who is winning this war?

22. The Unholy Alliance Between Red States and the Muslim world:
Do we have an unholy alliance between people from the Red States and the Muslim world as these individuals are driven more by religion than other values? Are the people in the Blue States and Europe their hostages?

23. The Leftist Attack on the IMF and World Bank and the Rightist Attacks on the UN and their Effect on Multilateralism :
Is the attack of the UN by the right and the IMF and World Bank from the left denigrating international institutions to the point that the general public doesn’t believe they can effectively deal with problems such as global terrorism?

24. The Presence of Infidels:
Western democracies accept Muslim citizens, allowing them to freely practice their religion. Yet, many Muslims believe that infidels should not get the same treatment in their countries. Is this differential treatment acceptable? Is the problem that Al Qaeda raises of having American bases in Saudi Arabia that the soldiers are not Muslim or that they are foreigners?

25. The Use of Force:
Other than the some fierce pacifists most citizens of democratic countries believe that democracies need to be armed and be ready to use military power in order to preserve themselves. But what should the guidelines be for its use?

26. Violence and Religion:
Is religion itself a terrorist hostage? To what extent are religions violent or very violent people religious?

27. The UN: Under Funded Expectations:
Can the UN do all that we expect from it including leading military intervention with a budget that is 3 times smaller than that of the State of Colorado? How can international institutions help in the conflict of global terrorism if they are so under funded?

28. The Race for Nuclear Weapons:
Is having nuclear weapons the only way for LDCs to get the attention of the USA? Isn’t the USA providing an incentive to despots to seek them?

29. US Troops in Iraq:
Will the US troops leave Iraq in the next 3 years? Are the US troops in Iraq to safeguard democracy, oil supplies, or both?

30. Democracies and the War on Terror:
What is the most effective anti-terrorist plan that democracies can put together that does not make military intervention a part of the strategy? What can be done at the grassroots level in the Muslim world to improve the average Muslim’s view of Western Democracies?

31. Democracy and Terrorism:
If the whole world was a democracy, would there still be terrorism? If the Millenium Goals are achieved, would there still be terrorism?

32. The Likelihood of Another 9/11:
Was Osama Bin Laden unusually lucky on 9/11 as he himself seemed to believe? Can a reasonable argument be made that the fight against terrorism has been effective and that it is very unlikely that we will ever see something like 9/11 again?

33. Victims of the War on Terror:
How many deaths have occurred since 9 11? How many of the dead are Christian, Jews or Muslims? Why?

34. Death Penalty in the Islamic World:
Is there a relationship between terrorism and the punishment by death that conversion to another religion carries in many Muslim countries? If most Muslims approve of extremely harsh penalties for people who convert, does that make death of non-Muslims easier to tolerate in general? Is there a correlation
in the fact that USA and the Muslim world both have death penalty and the Middle East conflict?

35. The State of Open Society and the War on Terror:
What are reasonable measures that democracies can take to protect themselves against terrorism? Are the US air travel security procedures reasonable? Why are the securities procedures at European airports so different? Is terrorism effective when it forces open societies to become “less open?”

36. Is Saudi Arabia Osama Bin Laden’s real target?

SAMPLE OF ATOCHA WORKSHOP CONFIRMED PARTICIPANTS

Nabi Abdullaev, Staff Writer, The Moscow Times.

Dr. Mowaffak Al Rubaie, National Security Advisor of Iraq

Dr. Haizam Amirah Fernández, Analista Principal Area de Mediterraneo e Mundo Árabe.
Investigador principal del área del mundo árabe del Real Instituto Elcano de Estudios Internacionales y Estratégicos

Irune Aguirrezabal, European Coordinator of the NGO Coalition for the International Criminal Court in Brussels.
Before joining the Coalition she worked as Representative to the European Union for a Spanish Humanitarian and Development NGO (1997-99) and was Secretary General of a European Association involved in multicultural understanding between West/East Europe (1991-93)

Marko Ahtisaari, Director of user-focused activities in the Insight & Foresight Unit of Nokia.

Heba Al-Sadeq, Administrative Secretary for Gaza Community Mental Health Program.

Mario Bettencourt Resendes, Publisher Diario de Noticias, Portugal.
Begun the professional activity in “Diário de Notícias” in February 1975, with a complementary training in Paris; invited, in April 1975, to take part in the team that founded “Jornal Novo” where worked, at the beginning, in the Business Section and later in the National Politics Section; invited, in April 1976, to integrate the team that founded the weekly publication “Opção”; appointed chief of the Editorial Office of “Opção” in June; invited, in November 1976, to work in “Diário de Notícias” in the National Politics Section; in charge of the supplement “Analysis” of “Diário de Notícias” since 1979 until the end of its publication; since February 1980 editor of the National Politics, Economy and Labour Section of “DN”; Deputy-Editor of “DN” since April 1986; Nominated Editor-in-Chief of “Diário de Notícias” in March 6, 1992, till February 2004; Publisher of
Lusomundo Media (daily papers, radio, magazines, etc) since November 2003; Vice president of the Board of Lusomundo Media since September 2004

Fares Braizat, Coordinator, Center for Strategic Unit – University of Jordan.

Rico Carisch, Journalist.
Journalist and analyst specialised in security risks involving corporate networks, political power structures and rogue enterprises(criminal and terrorists)

Yigal Carmon, President and Co-Founder, MEMRI

Emilio Cassinello, Director, Toledo International Centre for Peace

Carlos Castresana, He served as a District and Examine Judge, Court Magistrate, for a number of years before becoming a member of the Public Prosecutors of Spain where he worked in the Office against Corruption.

Profesor Fernando Cepeda, Profesor, en la Facultad de Administración Departmento de Ciencia Política – Universidad de los Andes.
CDTC participant, former member of Colombian government and ambassador.

Michael Chandler, Member Advisory Council, International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research, Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Singapore.
Member of the International Advisory Board to The International Policy Institute for Counter Terrorism, International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research (ICPVTR) Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies (IDSS) Nanyang Technological University

Rabbi Abraham Cooper, Associate Dean, Simon Weisenthal Center

Hanaa Edwar, Secretary of the Iraqi Al-Amal Association (IAA)
The Iraqi Al-Amal Association is a national NGO that has been established since1992, which is playing a pilot role within the current civil society movement in Iraq today, concentrating it’s program on awareness on non-violence, peace building and human rights culture and working to promote capacity building of the newly emerged Iraqi NGO’s. In addition, they have successfully built up the Iraqi Women’s Network that include more than 80 women’s groups and orgs through out the country and carried out successful campaigns for a special quota for women in making decision positions and for women’s rights.

Dr. Carlos Esposito, Senior Researcher in the Global Governance Program at FRIDE . Carlos Espósito is Professor of International Law and International Relations at the Law School of the Universidad Autonóma de Madrid and Senior Researcher in the Global Governance Program.

Nick Fielding, Senior reporter, The Sunday Times in London
Nick Fielding is a senior reporter at The Sunday Times in London where he specialises in covering stories on terrorism and intelligence issues. Previously he was worked for the Mail on Sunday and The Independent. He is the author
of two books: Masterminds of Terror, written jointly with Yosri Fouda, is a detailed account of the planning and background of the 9/11 attacks on America. It contains the only interviews ever conducted with the main organisers of the attack, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Ramzi Binalshibh. He also wrote Defending the Realm, which examines the way in which the British security services have responded to the new terrorist threat. He is married and lives in Oxfordshire.

John Gage, Chief Researcher, Sun Microsystems
One of founders of Sun. Well known thought leader. John Gage is the Chief Researcher for Sun Microsystems, an international information technology company based in California. He was one of the founders of Sun, in 1982, when a group of students and professors from Stanford and the University of California, Berkeley joined to create open systems in hardware and software. He serves on the Markle Foundation Task Force on National Security, the Board of Advisors of the United States Institute of Peace, the National Academy of Sciences, and the International Advisory Board of the Malaysian Multimedia Corridor.

Virginia Gamba, Director of Safer Africa (NGO). The mission of SaferAfrica is to serve the long-term security and development needs of Africa and its peoples in accordance with the vision of the African Renewal and the values of Pan-Africanism.

Robert K. Goldman, Professor of Law, a Louis C. James Scholar and the Co-Director of the Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law at the American University, Washington College of Law in Washington D.C.

Charmian Gooch, Co-director of Global Witness, UK (NGO that explores the link between the exploitation of natural resources and human rights abuses)

Dr. Steve Gorelick, Vice President for Institutional Advancement at The City University of New York Graduate Center.
Dr. Gorelick holds a Ph.D. in Sociology/Criminology and is an Adjunct Professor major interest is the role of the mass media in terrorism, mass violence, and natural disasters. His writing has appeared in the Washington Post, The Christian Science Monitor, The International Herald Tribune, and also in academic publications. He currently serves on the Advisory Council of The Dart Center on Journalism and Trauma at the University of Washington. He has received awards from the Eastern Sociological Society and American Society of Criminology and been a consultant to local and federal law enforcement agencies and to NBC News. He held a residential fellowship at the Institute for Advanced Studies at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. Most recently, he became affiliated with the National Center for Critical Incident Analysis (NCCIA) at the National Defense University in Washington, DC, an interdisciplinary group of experts examining the public’s ability to cope with critical incidents including terrorism and natural disasters.

Professor Rohan Gunaratna, Head of Terrorism Research, Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies Nanyoung Technological University.

Professor Dipak Gupta, Distinguished Professor in Political Science, Department of Political Science, San Diego State University.
Distinguished Professor in Political Science Chair, International Security and Conflict Resolution San Diego State University, He was born in India and came to the United States to pursue his Ph.D in economics n 1970. Being haunted by the spread of political violence in India, he started to examine reasons why people participate in collective violence and the impacts of such violence on the economy. He has authored 6 books (including Path to Collective Madness: A Study in Social Order and Political Pathology) and over 75 articles and book chapters. He has been invited by many universities, research institutions, government and private agencies around the world to lecture and consult. He is currently writing a book on the life-cycle of terrorist groups.

Professor Emmanuel Gyimah Boadi, Professor, Executive Director Ghana Centre for Democratic Development.
Executive Director of the Ghana Center for Democratic Development, an independent research think-tank on Ghanaian/African democratic development; co-director the Afrobarometer (a survey research project tracking African democratic and economic reforms); and professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Ghana, Legon.

José Luis Herrero, Director, Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE).

Mr. Jose Luis Herrero is Director of FRIDE, a Madrid based independent organisation that concentrates on Democratisation and Rule of Law, Global Governance and Development Cooperation. He worked for the United Nations in Haiti, Rwanda and Kosovo. From 1999 to 2002 he was a Political Advisor in the United Nations Mission in Kosovo, concentrating on post-conflict institution building.

Silvia Hidalgo, Development Assistance Research Associates.

Joi Ichi Ito, Entrepreneur and blogger.

Anatol Lieven, Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Mr. Lieven wrote a book entitled “Chechnya: Tombstone of Russian Power”, which is critical of both Russian government and Chechens.

Rosalina Lloret, Co-founder of www.Ya.com and Journalist.

Daniel Lubetzky, Chairman of PeaceWorks Holdings LLC.
Born and raised in Mexico City, Mr. Lubetzky studied abroad in France and Israel and received his B.A. in Economics and International Relations, magna cum laude, from Trinity University, and his J.D. from Stanford Law School. Fluent in Spanish, English, Hebrew and French, Mr. Lubetzky has lectured at Harvard, The Fletcher School, and The University of Pennsylvania/Wharton, as
well as at the World Economic Forum, the World Bank, and the United Nations. In 1997 he was selected by the World Economic Forum as one of 100 Global Leaders for Tomorrow (GLT). In 2004 he received on behalf of the PeaceWorks Foundation the World Association of NGOs Peace Security and Reconciliation Award. He is Chairman, Founder and President of PeaceWorks Holdings LLC which is a business corporation pursuing both peace and profit through joint ventures among neighbors striving to coexist in conflict regions (with ventures in the Mideast and South East Asia and a sales network reaching 5,000 customers in the US). The PeaceWorks Foundation, which conceived and guides the OneVoice Movement, empowering ordinary Israeli and Palestinian citizens to wrest the agenda for conflict resolution away from violent extremists.

Janet Maughan, Deputy Director, Global Inclusion – Rockefeller Foundation.

Juan Méndez, dedicated his legal career to the defense of human rights and has a long and distinguished record of advocacy throughout the Americas.

Moises Naim, Editor and Publisher, Foreign Policy Magazine.

Dr. Grygoriy Nemyria, Director of the Center for European and International Studies at the Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University and Chair of the Department for European Integration at the Ukrainian Academy of Public Administration.

Marina Ottaway, Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,

Dr. Samuel Peleg, Academic Director of the International Strategic Dialogue Centre at Netanya College in Israel.
He is a senior lecturer of political science and international relations at Tel Aviv University. With areas of specialization in conflict resolution, political communication, political violence and terrorism. He has published books and articles in international and Israel press. Dr. Peleg has counselled the prime minister’s office and the Israeli foreign office on various issues and has served on the Board of the Peres Center for Peace and on the steering committee of One Voice. He is also a close advisor of the former Minister of Justice Yossi Beilin and the initiator of the Oslo Accords and the Geneva peace proposal,. Recently he was appointed the Head of the Council of Experts for the One Voice Organization for Peace in the Middle East.

Sonia Picado, Chair of the Board of Directors of the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights.
Ms. Picado is a former member of Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica from San José and former President of the National Liberation Party.

Dr. Jerrold Post, Professor of Psychiatry, Political Psychology and International Affairs and Director of the Political Psychology Program at The George Washington University.
Dr. Post has devoted his entire career to the field of political psychology. Dr. Post came to George Washington after a 21 year career with the Central Intelligence Agency where he founded and directed the Center for the Analysis of Personality and Political Behavior, an interdisciplinary behavioral science unit which provided assessments of foreign leadership and decision making for the President and other senior officials to prepare for Summit meetings and other high level negotiations and for use in crisis situations. He played the lead role in developing the “Camp David profiles” of Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat for President Jimmy Carter and initiated the U.S. government program in understanding the psychology of terrorism. In recognition of his leadership of the Center, Dr. Post was awarded the Intelligence Medal of Merit in 1979, and received the Studies in Intelligence Award in 1980. He received the Nevitt Sanford Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Political Psychology in 2002, and the Jean Knutson Award for Distinguished Service to the International Society of Political Psychology in 2004.

Joshua Cooper Ramo, Managing Partner, Office of John L. Thornton Goldman, Sachs New York.
Joshua Cooper Ramo serves as an advisor on economic, political and security issues to governments at the ministerial level and some of the largest corporations in the world. He divides his time evenly between China and the rest of the world and his work has included projects as diverse as large privatizations, national development strategy and HIV/AIDS. Among Ramo’s recent work is UK Foreign Policy Centre paper “The Beijing Consensus” which has been called the “most important paper by a foreigner in China in ten years”. Inside China, Ramo deals with officials at all levels on strategic, economic and development problems. Prior to entering the advisory business, Ramo was a journalist. He joined Time in January 1996, as the youngest Senior Editor in the history of the magazine. He went on to become the magazine’s Foreign Editor at age 28 and oversee all international coverage. His more than a dozen Time cover stories included Time’s 1997 Man of the Year profile of Intel Chairman Andrew Grove and its award-winning cover story about Kofi Annan. He was international affairs analyst with his own weekly segment on CNN for five years. Raised in New Mexico, Ramo is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the World Economic Forum’s “Global Leaders of Tomorrow”, a Crown Fellow of the Aspen Institute and is a co-founder of the US-China Young Leaders Forum. He has twice taken sabbaticals to work in AIDS hospices in South Africa and currently leads a working group on using “guerilla marketing” to support the UN’s Millennium Development Goals. Joshua graduated with highest honors from the University of Chicago in 1992 with a degree in Latin American Studies and holds a Masters in economics from New York University. He is an avid pilot who holds two U.S. national point-to-point air speed records and whose book about his experiences as a competitive aerobatic pilot was published by
Simon & Schuster in 2003.

Ahmed Rashid, Author and Journalist.
Mr. Rashid is a Pakistani journalist based in Lahore is author ‘Taliban’’ and most recently ‘’Jihad.’’ He has covered Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central Asia
for the past 25 years and writes for the ‘Far Eastern Economic Review,’ the ‘Daily Telegraph,’ and ‘’The Wall Street Journal.’

Andrew Richards, Professor of Political Science at the Center for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences, Juan March Institute, Madrid.
He gained a First Class Honours degree in Politics from Bristol University in 1983 and a Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1992, where he also taught European and Soviet/Russian politics. He was a Visiting Professor at the Department of Government, Dartmouth College, in 1993, and a Visiting Professor at the Institute for Political Studies, Heidelberg University, in 2000. He is the author of Miners on Strike: Class Solidarity and Division in Britain (Berg, 1996), and has contributed chapters to the following edited volumes: Europe Today. National Politics, European Integration and European Security (Rowman and Littlefield, 1999); Can Class Still Unite? (Ashgate, 2001); Context and Consequence. The Effects of Unemployment in the New Europe (Cambridge University Press, 2001); and Constructing Democracy (Johns Hopkins University Press, forthcoming). He is currently working on a book manuscript on the trajectory of trade union movements before and after transitions to democracy.

Kenneth Roth, Executive Director of Human Rights Watch.
Mr. Roth is an articulate expert on the state of human rights and human rights abuses across the world. He is also a high-profile contributor to the media.

Major General (Res.) Danny Rothschild, Retired after more than three decades of active service in the Israel Defense Forces. As part of his posting as Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories, General Rothschild played central roles in the negotiation processes that led to the peace agreements with Jordan and with the Palestinians. In this capacity, he served as a member of Israel’s delegation to the peace talks with the Jordanians and with the Palestinians in Madrid and Washington D.C. subsequently; he headed Israel’s delegation in the bilateral peace talks held in Cairo. General Rothschild was a senior member of Israel’s delegation to the Paris economic talks for negotiation of the Israeli – Palestinian economic agreement. General Rothschild is the President of the Council for Peace and Security; he is a board member of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Chairman of the Israeli Board of the America Israel Friendship League, and Director in Investec Bank.

Maria Tereza Sadek Ribeiro de Sousa, Profesor, Departamento de Ciência Política, Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e CC. Humanas-Univ. Sao Paulo

Professor Marc Sageman, Adjunct professor of psychology, Penn’s Solomon Asch Center for Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict- University of Pennsylvania.

Ganesh Sahathevan, Freelance Journalist and Researcher.
Freelance journalist and researcher living and working in Australia. He was born in Malaysia and worked as a financial journalist between 1994 and 1997, investigation financial mismanagement in Malaysia and the region that led, in part, to the Asian Economics crisis of 1997. He continues to research and report
on south east asian business, economics and politics while based in Sydney.

Shimon T. Samuels, Director for International Liaison, Simon Weisenthal Center
Born in England in 1945 and graduated high school in London. B.A. in Political Science and History from Hebrew University of Jerusalem; M.Sc. (Econ.) in International Relations from London School of Economics, combined University of Pennsylvania/Paris Sorbonne doctoral program in Latin American Studies; diploma in Holocaust Studies from Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. Currently Director for International Liaison of the Simon Wiesenthal Centre, based in Paris and responsible for issues of contemporary racism and anti-Semitism in Europe, Latin America and international organizations, including the United Nations, UNESCO, OSCE and the Council of Europe Formerly, Jerusalem representative of the American Jewish Committee and European Director of the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith. Samuels has been a lecturer on international politics at the Colegio de Mexico, Sophia University in Tokyo, Pennsylvania Military College and Bar-Ilan University in Israel. He has been a researcher at the Foreign Policy Research Institute in Philadelphia and was Deputy-Director of the Leonard Davis Institute for International Relations in Jerusalem. He has reported as a journalist throughout Latin America and Eastern Europe and has published some two hundred articles on combating racism and prejudice, with special reference to anti-Semitism. Who’s Who in World Jewry notes that when asked of what personal experience he was most proud, Samuels responded: “to have been the first Jew ever invited to lecture at an Arab University. It was Cairo and the subject was ‘Prospects for Peace in the Middle East’, two years before the Egypt-Israel treaty became a reality”. He is Honorary President of the Europe-Israel Forum. He has been involved, among other issues, in containing resurgent anti-Semitism in Europe and the former Soviet Union, restitution claims against banks and insurance companies, Vatican diplomacy and countering NGO incitement in international for. He is the author of a chapter on “Applying the Lessons of the Holocaust” in the book Is the Holocaust Unique?, edited by Alan Rosenbaum, published in 2000.

Alex Schmid, Senior Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Officer for the United Nations.

Professor Philippe C. Schmitter, Department of Political and Social Science, European University Institute.
Professor Schmitter is famous in the area of Politics and international relations.

Dr. Joshua Sinai, Dr. Sinai is manager of the Social, Behavioral & Economics Studies of Terrorism Project, Threat & Vulnerability/Testing & Assessment Portfolio, Science & Technology Directorate, Department of Homeland Security.

Dr. Ekaterina Stepanova, head of a research group on nontraditional security threats and a senior researcher at the Center for International Security, Institute
of World Economy & International Relations (IMEMO) and a MacArthur Research Fellow (2003-)

Professor Michael Stohl, Professor of Communication at University of California at Santa Barbara.

Dr. Chris E. Stout, Licensed Clinical Psychologist and Clinical Professor, University of Illinois College of Medicine’s Department of Psychiatry and a Core Faculty at the International Center on Responses to Catastrophes at the University. He is Founding Director of the Center for Global Initiatives. The American Psychological Association honored him with their International Humanitarian Award in 2004.

Dr. Hala Taweel, Founder of the University of the Middle East.

Professor Bassam Tibi, Professor for International Relations and since 1988 Director at the University of Goettingen, Germany.
Since July 2004 he holds The A.D. White Professorship-at-Large, Cornell University, USA. On leave from Goettingen and Cornell he is in the academic year 2004/05 Visiting Scholar at Harvard University and from 2005 on Senior Research Fellow at the Asia Research Institute/ARI/National University of Singapore/NUS.

Dr. William Vendley, Secretary General, The World Conference on Religion and Peace.
Dr. Vendley is very active in working against terrorism with religious leaders and has travelled in the past months many times to Iraq, Sri Lanka, and other countries affected by political violence.

Professor Jeff Victoroff, Associate Professor of Neurology – Keck School of Medicine – University of Southern California.

Paul Vixie, Author of BIND (DNS) and founder and operator of “F” Root Server.

Dr. Stevan Weine, Director of the International Center on Responses to Catastrophes at the University of Illinois at Chicago.
His scholarly work focuses on familial, cultural, and historical dimensions of political violence. He is a National Institute of Mental Health Career Scientist and author of the books When History is a Nightmare (1999) and Testimony after Catastrophe (2005).

Professor Brian Glyn Williams, Assistant Professor of Islamic History, University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth.
Leading expert on Islamic terrorism in Russia.

Robin Wilson, Director Democratic Dialogue.
Robin Wilson has been director of the think tank Democratic Dialogue since he founded it in 1995.

Dr. David Wright-Neville,Special Representative of the President, Monash University, centre for the Study of Global Terrorism.
Expert on link between globalisation and extremism, especially in Asia.

Publicado el 7 febrero, 2005